Energies — Open Access Journal

Energies (ISSN 1996-1073; CODEN: ENERGA), an open access journal of related scientific research, technology development, engineering, and the studies in policy and management, is published by MDPI online monthly.

Impact Factor: 1.130 (2010); 5-Year Impact Factor: 1.130 (2010)

University of Lincoln members of the Editorial Board

Prof. Dr. Chris Bingham
School of Engineering, University of Lincoln, Brayford Pool Lincoln, LN6 7TS, UK
Tel. +44 1522 668896
Website: http://www.lincoln.ac.uk/engineering/staff/CBingham/chris_bingham.htm
E-Mail: cbingham@lincoln.ac.uk
Interests: aircraft dynamics and advanced control; impact of driver behavior on energy efficiency of EVs/HEVs, electrical power distribution for deep-sea ROVs; power electronic servo-drive systems; real-time prognostics and diagnostics for industrial systems; sensor validation and fault detection; high-efficiency power supplies for domestic products; active magnetic bearings for high-speed energy storage

Prof. Dr. Paul Stewart
School of Engineering, University of Lincoln, Brayford Pool, Lincoln, LN6 7TS, UK
Tel. +44 1522 668896
Website: http://www.lincoln.ac.uk/engineering
E-Mail: pstewart@lincoln.ac.uk
Interests: power and energy; systems modeling and optimisation; electrical machines and drives; advanced fuels and combustion; control and simulation; electric and hybrid vehicles; more electric aircraft; gas turbines; internal combustion engine; advanced powertrains; electrical systems; artificial intelligence; low carbon operation; CFD

Journal Contact

Energies Editorial Office
Postfach, CH-4005 Basel, Switzerland
E-Mail: energies@mdpi.com
Tel. +41 61 683 77 34; Fax: +41 61 302 89 18
Click here to see the full Editorial Board
Click here to see Contact Details

MAAT International Airship Project

Comparative size of airships and aircraft

International research collaboration for Lincoln

Lincoln’s PVC Research, Professor Paul Stewart and Professor of Energy Conversion, Chris Bingham, have been awarded high profile European funding for a new research project.

The MAAT (Multibody Advanced Airship for Transport) project sees Profs Stewart and Bingham working as part of a global consortium to take forward airship technology, through funding from the Seventh Framework Programme (FP7).

The project is being led by the Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Italy and the Lincoln team will focus on ‘Energy and Propulsive Systems’ with Paul in the role of principal investigator and Chris as co-investigator.

Prof Stewart said: “Airships are currently being developed by various organisations. They open up possibilities for the future of air travel; they are quieter, don’t require runways and are low carbon.

“Chris and I will be looking at how we can make the most efficient use of the energy generated by the photovoltaic cells on the outer body of the airships. We will focus on elements such as the electrical power systems, energy storage and propulsion and the control systems used for flying. By introducing innovative systems we can overcome the limitations of traditional propellers at high altitudes.”

The €multi-million project will run over three years and is one of two FP7-funded projects recently secured by the University. FP7 is the EU funding programme for research and technological development and is open to all disciplines – including social sciences and humanities. With a budget of €50 billion FP7 funds a range of project types, from large scale strategic collaborative research to individual fellowships. It runs until 2013, with new calls for proposals each year.

Why participate in FP7 research?

  • • Internationalisation of research
  • • Benchmarking performance in European context
  • • Range of project types (multi-disciplinary, industrial)
  • • Networking opportunities – research and teaching
  • • Opening up new opportunities
  • • Mobility of staff and students
  • • Research capacity
  • • Pan-European university networks
  • • Links to ‘third stream’ activities


The UK does exceptionally well out of all the countries involved in FP7. A recent UKRO report highlighting UK success rates found that:


  • • proposals from UK applicants were the second highest number from any country (as of October 2010).


  • • the UK has an above average applicant success rate: 24.5%, as opposed to 21.9% for the EU as whole. It also has a higher ‘financial contribution’ success rate: 22.6% as opposed to 20.9%.
  • • to date, 3721 grant agreements have been signed. 19% of participants  are from the UK, the second highest number of participations.
  • • 23.3% of EU funding has gone to UK beneficiaries; again, this is the second largest budget share.
  • • the UK also has an above average SME success rate: an applicant success rate of 22.1%, against EU 19.4%; a financial contribution success rate of 21.4%, against EU 18.3%.

The University’s David Young, Senior Research Facilitator in the  Research and Enterprise Office, is keen to advise and support staff with applications to this fund. For more information about the application process or the specific programmes within the framework contact him via email or on ext 6902.

Gas turbine research past and present

First flight of the jet engine powered Gloster E28-39

May 2011 saw the 70th anniversary of the first British jet powered aircraft flight celebrated at RAF Cranwell.

Exactly 70 years ago, on 15 May 1941, the Gloster E28/39 aircraft powered by Sir Frank Whittle’s jet engine taxied over 500 yards down the runway before taking off for a flight that lasted almost 17 minutes.

Organised by the Defence College of Aeronautical Engineering (DCAE) and sponsored by Aviation Heritage Lincolnshire supported by the Heritage Lottery Fund, the event saw the attendance of a wide range of guests including Sir Frank’s son Ian Whittle. Sir Frank began his RAF career as an apprentice and later trained as an RAF officer at RAF Cranwell.

L-R Ian Whittle, Kate Ellis (Lincoln City Council), Dr Jill Stewart (Acting Head of Engineering, University of Lincoln), Rob Smith (City of Lincoln Council)

Dr Jill Stewart, Acting Head of Engineering at the University of Lincoln is pictured in front of the Gloster E28/39 aircraft, and one of Sir Frank Whittle’s jet engines.

Pictured with Jill are Kate Ellis and Rob Smith from Lincoln City Council. We work closely with Kate and Rob, developing links with Lincoln engineering businesses for R&D, and also to raise the profile of Lincoln as a centre of engineering excellence.

Coming right up to date, Jill is currently leading a major research project looking at fundamental combustion in gas turbines for Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery in Lincoln.

Control Techniques re-commission the Lotus experimental engine

Control Techniques engineer working on the AC drive unit

The rotary electrical drive on the Lotus free-piston experimental engine has now been re-commissioned by an engineer from Control Techniques.

The rig is now ready to be transported from the ThinkTank to its new home in an engine test cell in the new building.

The engine is part of a long-term R&D programme into new engine technologies and combustion control techniques led by Prof Paul Stewart, in collaboration with Lotus Engineering in Norwich.

The programme is looking at advanced drive trains for Hybrid Electric vehicles.

Lotus experimental engine, with Control Techniques drive cabinet open in the background

The CT drive supplies the Emerson 15kW Permanent Magnet AC Motor (PMAC) which is coupled to the crankshaft and acts as a motor-generator to control piston trajectory when the linear free piston engine is tethered to the crankshaft.

Recommissioning the Lotus Experimental Free-Piston Engine

Camshaft drive transfer box

Now that the Free-Piston engine is back at the ThinkTank, the electrical drive to the main crankshaft servo will be re-commissioned by Control Techniques Ltd.

The Engine has been away for a while having a new linear electrical motor-generator fitted, and is now ready for electrical re-comissioning before we move it into it’s test-cell in the new School of Engineering building.

The engine is unique, in that it allows piston trajectory control for experimentation on both conventional (with crankshaft) and free-piston (linear electrical machine, no crankshaft) operation.

After re-commissioning and installation in the new building, Prof Stewart will be continuing research into fundamental combustion, multi-fuel operation with variable compression ratios and free-piston operation in collaboration with Dr Jill Stewart, Reader in Thermofluids.

Free-Piston engine in the ThinkTank lab waiting for re-commissionng